He also showed himself to be a rising star in the Roman law courts. All 53,000 Aduatuci are sold into slavery. Caésar’s style in the Commentaries is smooth and concise. Caesar’s fellow Romans understood that a considerable factor in his rise to power was his rhetorical and literary talent. They are less developed than the civilized Romans: they make human sacrifices; they treat the common people like slaves; they do not have democracy. The Gallic War is not only history, but was also a tool used to make history. Brutus. Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 1998. Cicero, Marcus Tullius. It was even harder for the lower classes and equestrians (businessmen with property worth at least 400,000 sesterces—Roman coins) who had neither the necessary dignitas nor auctoritas, although from time to time the nobles were willing to concede the consulship to a new man, or novus homo, who showed promise. His platform rested on the inability of nobles in the Senate to find either a diplomatic or military solution to the conflict in Numidia. ." All of this was enhanced by Caesar’s own reports to the Senate and his Commentaries on the Gallic War, which kept the Roman people abreast of his latest conquests. Trans. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. Setting out for Britain from Ports Etuis (perhaps today’s Bologna), he leads an army of 2,000 cavalry and five legions (approximately 25,000 infantry soldiers). Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Caesar’s narrative is a masterpiece of rhetorical or persuasive composition. To make matters worse, there was open gang warfare between their supporters in the streets of Rome, which pre-vented elections being held for 52 bce. Populares These senators used the people to achieve their political aims and objectives, and were often seen as a more democratic and radical groúp. There he receives the surrender of the Trinobantes and other tribes and attacks the stronghold of Cassivellaunus. The ideal form focused on the doubtful and varying fortunes of an outstanding individual and would contain contrasting emotions of surprise and suspense, joy and distress, hope and fear. Born on July 13, 100 bce into a noble family, Caesar benefited from his family connections, which included an uncle, Gaius Marius, who was a general and seven times occupied the office of consul (the highest ranking government official in Rome). When Aulus Hirtius remarked in his preface to book eight that “Caesar possessed not only the greatest skill and elegance in writing, but also the surest ability to ex-plain his own plans” (Gallic War 8, Preface, section 7; trans. Just ten days later, a 400-yard Roman-built bridge spans the Rhine. After Caesar’s lieutenant Labienus routs the Treveri, his force and Caesar’s set out once more for Germany. Well, not entirely…One small village of the indomitable Gauls still holds out against the invaders. Generally, though, Caesar sets up a framework of Roman versus barbarian, portraying the region as a threat to the survival of Roman civilization itself. As Caesar’s opponents knew very well, his campaigns in Gaul, Britain, and Germany were illegal. "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries Contents: The war in Gaul -- The civil war. The first blow is struck by Ambiorix, chieftain of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Only the Aduatuci tribe now withstands Rome’s might. Cassivellaunus promises hostages and a yearly tribute, after which Caesar returns to Gaul and settles his troops in winter quarters. His nobility is apparent from the beginning of book seven to the moment that he surrenders willingly to the decision of his own people and to Caesar. D. McLintock. A small group of powerful senators, however, continued to provoke a rift. Unnerved by the unusual spectacle of charioteers in Britain and by the British weather, the Romans survive an ambush and an attack on their camp. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Parenti, M. The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People’s History of Ancient Rome. The two works arise out of a chaotic period of self-styled military rulers, growing corruption of governmental processes, gang warfare, and civil war. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. Fearing the approach of winter, Caesar departs for Gaul. Caesar’s narrative, written in the third person, lays claim to a more impersonal and objective approach. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1951. During the second century bce the traditional systems of the Roman Republic began to fracture in the face of protracted foreign wars, an influx of foreign slaves, and extraordinary opportunities for wealth and prestige to be amassed by generals and their legates (military commanders). He crosses the river Axona (now called Aisne) to aid the town of Bibrax. Of the forces that had taken part in the attack—known to number over 30,000—more than a third were killed; the rest fled in terror and were not allowed to halt even on the mountain heights. After repulsing the enemy, Galba retires to the Roman province, where he winters amid the Allobroges. LibriVox recording of Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar. The era saw the growth of enormous estates (the infamous latifundid), whose rise came at the expense of the smaller landowners. The final sections shift the focus to the challenges to Caesar’s authority at Rome. For example, Caesar claims that the Helvetii threaten the Roman province and promote anti-Roman sentiment. J. New York: New Press, 2003. Generally they succeed in throwing the ranks of their opponents into confusion just with the terror caused by their galloping horses and the din of their wheels. As one historian suggests, he was “presenting him-self in contemporary terms to his fellow Romans as the greatest and most worthy of them, striving beyond all else to outdo his most significant rival, Pompey the Great” (Welch and Powell, p. ix). This gave some relief to the Romans, ever mindful that the Gauls had once sacked Rome. Caesar. They make their way through the squadrons of their own cavalry, then jump down from their chariots and fight on foot, Meanwhile the chariot-drivers withdraw a little way from the fighting and position the chariots in such a way that if their masters are hard pressed by the enemy’s numbers, they have an easy means of retreat to their own lines. The presence of Marius’s army veterans in the forum, Rome’s civic and commercial center, effectively silenced any opposition. The Gallic War, published on the eve of the civil war which led to the end of the Roman Republic, is an autobiographical account written by one of the most famous figures of European history. The Nervii then besiege the camp of Quintus Cicero. Mommsen, Theodor. . Caesar’s response is savage. The Roman Army B. Britain Indexes Maps And Plans The full title on surviving manuscripts of Caesar’s single, continuing set of accounts on the Gallic and Civil Wars is C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum (The Commentaries of C. Julius Caesar on His Achievements). Election to the office of praetor followed. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. In 113 bce they roundly defeated the Roman consul Cnaeus Papirius Carbo at Noricum (in Nearer Gaul). Six years later, after being displayed in Caesar’s triumph, he was executed. The annual structure, geographic and ethnographic digressions on the Gauls and Ger-mans, rousing speeches by the Celts and Romans, records of his own and his generals’ achievements, the results of his campaigns—all these suggest the writing of history rather than autobiography. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. The extent to which Caesar may have exceeded the truth of history should be considered in relation not just to the historical events or circumstances that shaped the work. After an apologetic preface, Hirtius, Caesar’s general, opens with a verbal reference to books one and seven of the Gallic War: “The whole of Gaul was defeated.” (omni Gallia devictd) (Gallic War, 8.1; trans. The Usipetes and the Tencteri cross into Gaul under pressure from the Suebi, who are the largest and most warlike of the German nations. The tide is turned by the arrival of Rome’s Tenth Legion and the Romans are victorious. Trans. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Leipzig: Teubner, 1968. On hearing the news of it, their old men … sent envoys to Caesar and surrendered.... Caesar, wishing to let it be seen that he showed mercy to the unfortunate suppliants, took great care to protect them from harm, confirmed them in possession of their territories and towns, and commanded their neighbours to refrain from injuring their persons or property. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. Unable to compete, they quit their holdings and flocked to Rome with other dispossessed citizens. Caesar withdraws to settle a dynastic squabble among the Aedui people. Wiseman, T. P., ed. In a demonstration of Roman might, Caesar crosses into Germany in order to deter further German incursions into the Nice). Situated in 50 bce, each book begins as follows: The year is 50 B.C. However, the date of retrieval is often important. A law of 180 bce, the lex Villia Annalis, prescribed a fixed order in which magistracies had to be held and also prescribed minimum age limits for each office, The conventional order was quaestor (28), praetor (39), consul (42), and potentially censor (which could only be held after the consulship), al-though a magistrate could also hold the tribunate or aedileship (the former traditionally held before, and the latter after the quaestorship). The Romans launch simultaneous attacks against the restless northern peoples—the Menapii, Aduatuci, and the Treveri. Lives of the Twelve Caesars. The English scholar Francis Bacon (1561-1626) thought that the Commentaries revealed Caesar to be the most complete and unique figure to emerge from antiquity. With the armies settled in winter quarters, Caesar’s lieutenant Servius Galba attempts to open up a secure trade route across the Alps. His troops’ first action is against … Doing battle, his Roman fleet proves itself superior to the enemy in oarsmanship, speed, and tactics. In 105 bce at Arausio (modern Orange, France) the combined armies of the Cimbri and Teutones decisively routed the Roman legions of the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and Cnaeus Mallius with the reported loss of 80,000 men. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. S. A. Handford. After 18 days of maneuvers and raids, his point made, Caesar withdraws to Gaul. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. With winter approaching, Caesar plunders territory of two Belgic peoples in the North—the Morini and the Menapii. But his measures were short-lived as the actions of certain nobles undermined his constitutional reforms. Their unlikely hero is a very small Gallic man named Asterix, who is accompanied by his faithful companion, an oversized man named Obelix, and his pet hound, Dogmatix. Caesar draws attention to the significance of the victory and takes the opportunity to display his famous dementia (clemency): So ended this battle, by which the tribe of the Nervii was almost annihilated and their name almost blotted out from the face of the earth. When they threaten two Gallic tribes—the Aedui and Allobroges—that are Roman allies, Caesar pursues the Helvetii to the town of Bibracte, where his troops defeat them. Despite a magnificent third triumph, the Senate’s refusal to ratify Pompey’s eastern settlement led him to seek support from equally ambitious nobles. He is the diplomat, general, warrior. The book ends laconically: “After this deed Caesar found Gaul somewhat quieter” (Commentarii rerum gestarum, 5.58; trans. Though the Britons keep bothering his men on the march, Caesar eventually reaches the Thames. Eventually the Romans launch a counterattack, their cavalry pursuing and beheading the Treveri leader, Indutiomarus. Cicero, the foremost rhetorician of the era, wrote in 46 bce: “They [the Commentaries] are greatly to be approved. Original Latin title: "Commentarii de Bello Gallico", sometimes abbreviated as "Bell. new Roman province and to encourage another Germanic group, the Ubii, to resist the Sheba. Caesar's books were intended as an aid for future historians - that's why they are officially called Commentaries, and not History of the Gallic War - but the author often leaves out information that historians would have found interesting. In the absence of Caesar, the cavalry of a west Germanic group, the Sugambri, attack Cicero’s camp. Encircling the ramparts of the enemy, the forces of Gaul are successively beaten back. Seven “books,” which are in fact parts of a single book, make up Commentaries on the Gallic War. This is clearly the best available audio download of Caesar's Gallic War Commentaries. But the most obvious inspiration is the dictator Sulla’s lost Commentarii rerum gestarum, on his life and achievements. The leading citizens of Rome could hold a number of political positions as follows, from highest to lowest: Dictator A six-month (or shorter) appointment held by one Roman citizen. However, Caesar had an agenda he wished to promote. In light of a reported conspiracy by the Belgae, a group of tribes in North-eastern Gaul, Caesar raises two new legions and marches on their territory. After their year of office in Rome, praetors and consuls sometimes governed outside Rome in a province, where they were known as propraetors or proconsuls. Each office bestowed a certain amount of potestas (political authority) or imperium (military authority). Language: English: LoC Class: PA: Language and Literatures: Classical Languages and Literature: Subject: Gaul -- History -- Gallic Wars, 58-51 B.C. A new army and a new general, L. Cassius Longinus, advanced against the Tigurini. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … In 63 bce, a Gallic tribe, the Allobroges, who had long been faithful to the Roman cause, rebelled when their appeal for debt relief fell on deaf ears. 1. The destruction of Carthage in 146 bce ended the Third Punic War (149–146). Also his reports always portray the enemy as the aggressor, even when his troops plunder Gallic lands or he sells a population into slavery. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. The praetor peregrinus (alien praetor) dealt with lawsuits involving foreigners. Praetor At the time of the Gallic War, Rome elected eight praetors a year. ), known as Cato the Elder and Cato the Censor, was a Roman soldier, statesman, orator…, Commerce Department Intelligence and Security Responsibilities, United States, Commercial Production: Interaction Among Peoples, Commercial Production: Methods of Exchange, Commercial Production: Occupations and Work Habits, https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war, The Rise of Rome (3rd century bce to 2nd century ce, Communication, Transportation, and Exploration: Overview, Divide and Rule: The Legacy of Roman Imperialism. a German chieftain named Ariovistus (chapters 30-59). Track Page Views WithAuctiva's FREE Counter Often he appears suddenly and dramatically: to save the Seventh Legion in Britain, to rescue Quintus Cicero, at the forefront of the battle, robed in his general’s red cloak at the siege of Alesia. He takes care to mention individual officers, centurions, and even slaves. S. A. Handford). Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter. No doubt you’ve heard Winston Churchill’s famous quote that “History is written by the victors,” as was the case with the Gallic Wars. To advance his ambitions, he joined forces with Pompey and Crassus in an unofficial political alliance known as “The First Triumvirate,” a pact that foreshadowed the end of the Republic. In 109 bce the Romans sent out a new army under the consul M. lunius Silanus to de-fend the new Roman province of Farther Gaul. Nonetheless, there are traces of a tradition hostile to the content of Caesar’s Commentaries. When his slave brings word to Caesar, Caesar advances swiftly to break the blockade of Cicero’s camp. With the help of the tribunes of the people, he distributed cheap grain to the poor and guaranteed land to his veteran troops. They maintained the streets of Rome, regulated traffic and the city water supply, and were responsible for the upkeep of public buildings. They are fickle and undetermined, rash and frenzied, greedy and lazy. Book Summary. In fact, much of what we know about them comes directly from Julius Caesar himself, in his works (with the exception of the last volume) entitled Commentarii de Bello Gallico, or Commentaries on the Gallic War. Each successive generation could augment the auctoritas earned by their ancestors and increase their own dignitas through the position, status, and wealth of their family. Four times he recalls their annihilation of the Roman army of L. Cassius Longinus in 107 bce. The praetors oversaw the permanent law courts. Aedile Each year four aediles were elected. Commentaries on individual books of the Gallic War are available, and sev- eral new commentaries are appearing on the selections from the Gallic War that were chosen for the Advanced Placement Exam in Latin (introduced in spring 2013), but nothing that presents multiple books in … _____. As a historical document, the Commentaries on the Gallic War remain enormously valuable as the memoir of a Roman commander in provinces of the empire. Haphaestus There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Welch, Kathryn, and Anton Powell, eds. In Caesar’s day, senators typically belonged to one of two groups: Optimates These senators followed the traditional senatorial routes to authority and political success, and were often seen as a less democratic and more conservative group. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Rome annexed Nearer Gaul, but matters came to a head in the late second century bce, when two German tribes, the Cimbri and the Teutones, migrated there. Caesar hastens back to the province. In practice, power rested in the hands of a small landowning minority who controlled the Senate. The Latin text given here generally conforms with the Oxford Classical Text of 1900 by Renatus DuPontet, except for the following:. The influence of Marius cannot be overestimated, either on Roman politics in the first century bce or on the young Caesar. As Lindsay Hall remarks: He ponders things, acts in accordance with pre-arranged plans or principled habit, explains his reasons for strategic or tactical decisions and his other consilia or policies; he…anticipate [s] political or military movements on the part of potential enemies, or the results of actions that have come to an end; he regularly foresees … eventualities, or…carefully excuses failure to do so. For not long after the conquest of Gaul, the unusual antics of the essedarii made them a regular feature m the Roman amphitheater. Beginnings of books are often marked off with threats to the peace of Gaul, which continue to justify Caesar’s presence in the territory. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. ." Moving swiftly, Caesar prevents them from crossing the Rhine River. Very enjoyable audio program on Julius Caesar. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. For a modern audience the enduring reputation of Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 bce) is owed partly to his infamous portrayal in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and partly to his political and military domination of the Roman world during the 50s and 40s bce. Despite setbacks, Caesar establishes Roman dominion over the area that is modern-day France and the low countries (Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg). Asterix and the Secret Weapon. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. Suetonius. Like most young noblemen in Rome, Caesar served a military apprenticeship. First they drive in all directions hurling spears. A request that Caesar’s command in Gaul be extended from 51 through 49 bce was rejected. Later works include his dispatches to the Senate, letters to Cicero and others, two speeches against the Roman statesman Cato the Younger (95-46 bce), and the poem The Journey. The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) The Battle for Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War]. The cursus honorum, or “ladder of offices,” was the means by which a Roman official, or magistrate, advanced politically. Advanced embedding details, examples, and help, Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0, Siege_of_the_stronghold_of_the_Aduatuci.jpg, Octodurus_and_the_surrounding_territory.jpg, The_Veneti_and_neighboring_coast_region.jpg, Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014). It was also common to praise one’s own achievements when dedicating a monument or writing memoirs. Fortunately for Rome the tribes moved westward toward Switzerland. Now late in the summer, Caesar directs his attention toward Britain. “I did not undertake the war,” he said, “for private ends, but in the cause of national liberty. Since 1959 Goscinny and Uderzo’s 32 books have been translated into over 100 languages (including ancient Greek and Latin), used as educational materials, and adapted for animation and motion picture (Asterix and Obelix vs. Caesar [1999]; Asterix and Obefix: Mission Cleopatra [2002], starring Christian Clavier as Asterix and Gerard Depardieu as Qbefix). On January 10 and 11 of 49 bce, Caesar, his dignitas irreparably slighted, crossed the Rubicon, a stream separating Gaul from Italy. _____The Conquest of Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War] Trans. had a special interest in word forms. An additional book by Caesar’s general, Aulus Hirtius (consul 43 bce), relates events of 51 and 50 bce. Others such as Pompey the Great used their popular influence to gain extraordinary commands. Trans. By the time of the Gallic War, Rome had decreed that a ten-year interval was necessary between the holdings of the same office. Meier, Christian. It was impossible for Caesar to have fully falsified his account since it would have been competing with his own reports to the Senate, with his correspondence and the letters of his officers to Rome, and with other literary compositions by the men under his command. Suddenly a revolt breaks out incited by a member of the Treveri tribe, a Gallic tribe that provided Caesar with cavalry. Asinius Pollio, who had fought with Caesar, thought they had been composed carelessly and with too little regard to the truth. Main writing starts at 10:03 mark. Cross-references to this page (11): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB. Encyclopedia.com. : Harvard University Press, 1962. After amassing fresh troops to counter the threat of war, Caesar finds him-self occupied in the North, again in Menapian territory. There ensues a battle in which Caesar’s legions rout the army of Ariovistus. And life is not easy for the Roman legionaries who garrison the fortified camps of Totorum, Aquarium, Laudanum and Compendium …. He advances on the Bellovaci, who surrender themselves to the Romans. His movement inland is temporarily checked when news arrives that a storm has destroyed 40 ships. Boston: David R. Godine, 1980. The Veneti Senate is executed by sword, and the remaining adult males are sold as slaves. The Latin title, literally Commentaries on the Gallic War, is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. They acted as paymasters to generals on campaign and supervised the sale of war booty. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. McDevitte and W.S. Julius Caesar himself was one. At the age of 25, Pompey joined Sulla and campaigned in Italy, Sicily, and Africa, then refused to disband his army unless he was granted a triumph (a celebratory procession that wound its way through the streets of Rome to the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill). Later, as tribune of the people, he passed a measure limiting the influence of the nobility at elections. Later he demonstrated how easy it was to pervert the traditional Republican Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. His brief speech to his own people is a moving demonstration of self-sacrifice: The next day Vercingetorix addressed an assembly. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. The narrative paints Vercingetorix as a suitably intelligent and resourceful opponent to the Roman commander. Many had to sell them to wealthier landowners to avoid bankruptcy. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). The insurrecti…, Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) R. Graves. ." In a remarkable speech, he shames the remainder of the army into action. Marius had first gained public recognition in 134 bce as a military tribune at Numantia in Spain. The ring-leader, Acco, is flogged to death in accordance with Roman custom, and Caesar heads back to Italy. Trans. Power became ever more polarized in the hands of Caesar and Pompey. Caesar, Julius. In the last century or so of Republican life in Rome, “it mattered who was first and who was second” (Wiseman, p. 7). And since I must now accept my fate, I place myself at your disposal. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). Caesar presents real or imagined threats to ex-plain away his intervention in Gaul. The Commentaries on the Gallic War influenced writers and thinkers in Britain, France, and Germany. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 3.23. "Commentaries on the Gallic War Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, CONSTRUCTION OF CASES. London: HarperCollins, 1995. Germany. A. Despite the use of the third person for his account, Caesar himself is ever present. In the account and through the account, Caesar emerges as a model of Roman virtue par excellence. Commentaries on the Gallic War is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. After he fails to relieve the town of Avaricum (today’s Bourges), it falls to Caesar, whose troops have besieged it. Book seven is the story of Vercingetorix, a young nobleman of another Celtic tribe, the Arvernians, who becomes the leader of the resistance movement in Gaul. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. London: Routledge, 1996. Events in History at the Time of the Commentaries. The Romans had a deep-rooted fear of Celtic tribes because of past history. The first words of Caesar’s climactic seventh book: Quieta Gallia (”Peaceful Gaul”) could not have been more precisely chosen. At-tempting to deceive Caesar, the Aduatuci appear to comply but then attack the Romans by night. Digressions on the characteristics of the Gauls and Germans are essential to Caesar’s account. In theory, the governance of the Roman state was shared jointly by the Senate and the people of Rome (senatus populusque Romanus). They were joined on their march by another tribe known as the Tigurini. Publishing a section of Commentaries on the Gallic War annually at the end of a military campaign season would have enabled Caesar to promote himself to the Roman public and to enhance his immediate political ambitions. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. A few years later, when the Senate added Farther Gaul to Nearer Gaul as one of Caesar’s territories, he redirected his attention toward the unruly tribes of Gaul. Anthea Bell and Derek Hockridge. Cicero’s band, foraging away from the camp, is caught off guard. In A History of Private Life. A. They capture some Roman officials and demand the return of their own hostages. A. Aulus Hirtius, published in the mid-40s bce. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). In Roman politics, alliances were always unstable because of external pressures and wavering ambitions, and this three-way coalition was no different. Meanwhile, the yearly reports from Gaul and Britain were adding to Caesar’s growing popularity. There are no accounts of the looting of the Gallic sanctuaries, which … — The opening line, immortalised in Latin language classes. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Quaestor Financial and administrative officials, the 20 quaestors at the time of the Gallic War maintained public records and oversaw the treasury. See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive, Uploaded by Caesar’s men defend their nation with discipline, hard work, and traditional virtue. In the second part of the book Caesar responds to a request from the tribes of Gaul for aid against On returning to Rome, Caesar was elected to the college of pontiffs (a priesthood with duties ranging from overseeing state sacrifices to serving as an advisory body on sacred law). 51586 Commentaries on the Gallic War — Book 1 Julius Caesar. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In 107 bce his army was defeated and forced to march under the yoke as if they were oxen, a terrible humiliation. For they are unadorned, direct and graceful, stripped of every oratorical ornament as though divested of clothing” (Cicero, Brutus, chapter 292). Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Julius Caesar wrote in compelling and no non-sense pros. The latter. : Harvard University Press, 1987. Rather the Commentaries on the Gallic War should be regarded as a key to understanding the sophisticated linguistic, rhetorical, and historical processes of one of ancient Rome’s most dynamic politicians and foremost thinkers. A. The peace of just a few weeks earlier is shattered by an unexpected onslaught on Galba’s camp. Citizens often returned home to find their land allotments in ruin. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. His troops’ first action is against the Helvetii (chapters 2-29), who have been inspired by their chieftain Orgetorix to migrate from their homeland (in modern-day Switzerland) to Gaul through Roman territory. A, Wiseman and P. Wiseman). The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). Though an able orator, Caesar understood that true power at Rome was possible only through military success and a supportive army. Chariots had not been encountered by a Roman army in over 150 years. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. Sulla subsequently tried to shore up the power of the optimates (those who believed in the traditional authority of the Senate) and to prevent popular agitation by muzzling the tribunes of the people. During his own lifetime and the century that followed, Caesar’s Commentaries received high praise for their uncomplicated style. When this attack fails, the Britons sue for peace. In 54 Julia died and in 53 Crassus was killed in Parthia, seeking military glory. A. These officials had aides called lictors, who carried bundles of rods, known as fasces (for flogging) and (when the official was a consul) also carried axes (for executions). Pollio believed that Caesar gave a false account, either purposely or because of a faulty memory (Suetonius, Caesar 56.4). Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The narrator has obvious familiarity with the work hence rarely misspeaks or mispronounces names or terms. Ancient and modern readers would be hard pressed to find a purer example of historical writing that is tailored to the views and desires of its central figure than Caesar’s Gallic War. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54. The Gallic War: Commentaries on the Gallic War with an Eighth Commentary. It is perhaps no wonder that just two years later his Roman troops were ready to follow him to the bitterest of encounters—civil war. In the years that followed Marius’s victory, the inhabitants of Farther Gaul were heavily taxed and closely monitored. Access to the highest magistracies was restricted, even to nobles. Silanus was defeated. Thus when they fight they have the mobility for cavalry and the staying power of infantry; and with daily training and practice they have become so efficient that even on steep slopes they can control their horses at full gallop, check and turn them in a moment, run along the pole, stand on the yoke and get back into the chariot with incredible speed, (Gallic War 433; trans. (Gallic War, 2.28; trans. S. A. Handford). Not only is the student presented with the com-plete text of over five (of the seven Caesarian) books of the Gallic War, but he or she also encounters a The “mutiny” spreads and Caesar is compelled to call a council of war. The memoirs of P. Rutilius Rufus, the autobiography of M. Aemilius Scaurus, or Cicero’s account of his consulship are worthy predecessors to Caesar’s commentaries. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. Meanwhile, on the Atlantic coast, Publius Crassus, the son of the triumvir, secures the submission of the maritime tribes. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Encyclopedia.com. He encourages his Roman audience to believe in his actions and in himself. The forces of the Eburones and Nervii disperse. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. In 79 bce he won the Civic Crown (a military decoration of oak leaves woven into the shape of a crown) for saving the life of a Roman citizen, an indication of greater things to come. The commentarius was a genre that had its origins in the Greek hypomemnata (or ‘memoranda’), such as public legal records and accounting expenses, or private notes for speeches and personal diaries. When they began, Rome had nearly completed the conquest of Italy, while Carthage cont…, Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder Consul The two annually elected chief magistrates of Rome. Tribune of the People (tribunus plebis) A one-year position held by 10 men, charged with He had operated outside the limits of his provinces without senatorial authority and, by rights, should have been prosecuted. Pompey was granted special authority to deal with the crisis. They justify his conquests by encouraging the reader to draw comparisons between Roman ideals of nationhood and the ways of these foreign nations. https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war, "Commentaries on the Gallic War Make amends to the Romans by killing me or surrender me alive as you think best.”, (Gallic War, 7.89; trans. Bradley, P. Ancient Rome: Using Evidence. Endings are signaled by a return to winter quarters (books 1, 3, 5, and 6) or the more climactic reference to public thanksgivings in Caesar’s honor (2, 4, and 7). In addition, the narrator's voice is a perfect match for conveying Caesar's writings. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War: From The Commencement Of The Same To The End Of His Second Expedition Into Britain: Accompanied With A Latin ... With English Notes, Explanatory And Critical: Caesar, Julius: Amazon.com.tr Veyne, Paul, ed. For the first time the Roman army no longer owed allegiance to the state but to the general who could provide for them. At the end of the year the triumvirs conspired to award Caesar a five-year governorship of some Roman provinces in Europe—Illyricum and Nearer Gaul (or Cisalpine Gaul, Gaul on this side of the Alps). Intended to do more than document events, the commentaries are the product of someone who understood the importance of propaganda to increase his power and to achieve his autocratic ambitions. Asterix’s small village fends off the Roman invaders with a little help from a magic potion prepared by a Druid named Getafix. He offers reasons for campaigning outside his province: the Britons have been helping the tribes of Gaul fight the Ro-mans and Rome will gain knowledge of Britain’s land and peoples. His actions resulted eventually in the annexation of the Near East and an ingenious settlement that took ac-count of the complex geographical and political factors of the region. Working closely with the army, tribunes, and the people, Marius’s military successes in Numidia resulted in his election in absentia for the consulship of the Republic in 104 bce. 1.25 circumvenere: we follow Seel and others in reading circumvenire As with Caesar’s exaggerated claims, it is not true. Cleverly the authors exaggerate themes of Roman and barbarian found in Caesar’s Commentaries, although in their version the barbarians always have the last word. Report of the victory causes the rebellious Treveri to call off another planned attack, but they continue to incite rebellion and taunt the Romans. A third view argues that the books were produced and published at stages during the campaign, probably yearly. In addition to the influences of genres, one can detect the impact of Caesar’s teachers, the orator Apollonius Molon of Rhodes, and the grammarian Antonius Gnipho. Finally, failing to engage the Suebi, Caesar returns to Gaul, leaving part of the Roman-built bridge standing as a warning to the Germans. ... Gallic War Book I Book II Book III Book IV Book V Book VI Book VII Book VIII. In the centuries that followed, Celtic tribes continued to encroach on Italian territory and to offer aid to Rome’s enemies. Introduction takes up 9 minutes. 53973 Commentaries on the Gallic War Julius Caesar and Aulus Hirtius W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Exposing himself to the same risks as his troops, he won their confidence and trust. The excellence of Kelsey’s work is due to its rigor and completeness. Such military and civic distinctions bestowed auctoritas, an authority that entailed the respectful admiration of one’s contemporaries. C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum [Caius Julius Caesar, Commentaries on His Achievements]. Those who are left at home have to support the men in the army as well as themselves, and the next year take their turn of service, while the others stay at home. The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. In 50 bce, the question of a successor Nice), he acknowledges that Caesar had exceeded the limits of his command. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. He studied rhetoric and philosophy in Rhodes, after a brief delay en route when he was captured by pirates. Further successes against tribes from Gaul prompted the people to re-elect Marius consul every year until 100 bce. At the time, Sulla earned the dubious distinction of being the first Roman citizen to march an army on the city of Rome. At Rome the form developed in the writings of the priestly colleges or of the leading magistrates, in senatorial dispatches and reports, and in the diaries of army generals and provincial governors. When the measure to remove Pompey and Caesar from their commands was vetoed, some senators re-quested that Pompey protect the Republic from the ambitions of Caesar. In Caesar’s time the ancient region of Gaul (roughly equivalent to France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) was inhabited by disparate nations, or tribal groups. Nice). Nice). They are ironic in view of the tumultuous events then happening in Rome (Caesar notes that he had learned of the murder of a leading Roman political figure, Clodius [Gallic War, 7.1]), and the events about to unfold in Gaul itself. When it came to his political affiliations, Caesar was a member of the Populares, a demagogu… The standard position is that Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic War were a synthesis of his earlier campaign reports, and that he wrote and published them after the successful completion of business in Gaul in 52-51 bce. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. defending the legal interests and property of plebeians (common people). Caesar’s arrival soon after revives morale. Twice Caesar had been granted unprecedented periods of public thanksgiving and prayers to the gods. With typical celeritas, or speed, Caesar marches against the German tribes, defeating them in two separate engagements. Caesar orders the construction of new ships to facilitate a full-scale invasion of Britain. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Appointed governor of Rome’s ancient provinces of Gaul and Illyricum, Julius Caesar battles the tribes of Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Subject: Rome -- History -- Civil War, 49-48 B.C. The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. In the modern world, Caesar’s accomplishments have rarely gripped the popular imagination. Book Four reminds us of the ever-present German threat to peace in Gaul. Within the Republic, ancient eulogies and funerary inscriptions testify to a preoccupation among the oligarchy with magistracies and priest-hoods, public building works, military successes, and, above all, contests to prove themselves “first,” “best,” or “greatest.” The citizens of ancient Rome competed fiercely to gain access to the Senate, to ascend the cursus honorum (”ladder of honors”), and to become consul. At the river Sabis (now Sambre) the ferocity and courage of the Nervii tribe proves a worthy match for Caesar’s legions. Category: Text: EBook-No. The events in Caesar’s commentaries unfold in chronological order, always by year and sub-divided by summers and winters, resembling the method characteristic of Roman historiography. . He ends the year harassing the enemy, searching for Ambiorix, chief of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe, and conducting an enquiry into a conspiracy by two Gallic tribes (the Senones and Carnutes). They commanded the army, conducted the chief elections, presided over the Senate, and implemented Senate decisions. Despite their success, the Britons petition for peace and promise to return hostages. In Rome, the people celebrated. Caesar also recovers the loyalty of the Aedui and of the Arverni, stations Roman officials and troops throughout Gaul, and personally winters at Bibracte. His success as an orator led to political and social advancements, which by the late 60s bce had placed him among the most important men in the state. Among the Gallic peoples, Vercingetorix is the Gallic equivalent of Caesar: a capable orator, strategist, and warrior. Highly recommended. Ed. to Caesar became a pressing issue. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (variously translated into English as Commentaries on the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, or simply The Gallic War) is the firsthand account of Julius Caesar 's campaigns in Gaul (modern-day France), Germany, and Britain between 59 and 51 BC. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. It the violent anticlimax to more than a century of conflict between Rome…, Vercingetorix The resultant urban problems led to genuine attempts at political and social reforms (in 133 and 123-122 bce), aimed at relieving the plight of Rome’s poorer classes. In 56 bce, assuming peace, Caesar heads for Illyricum. Routing the enemy, he presses forward into the territory of other Belgic peoples. After Caesar’s assassination, it would take another 14 years of civil war for the emergence of an autocrat who was capable of unifying the Senate and the people of Rome. The German historian Theodor Mommsen, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902, regarded Caesar as the only creative genius produced by Rome and the last produced by the ancient world. After ordering new ships built, Caesar continues his ad-Vance and encounters Cassivellaunus, lord of the land north of the Thames River. “As a whole Gaul is divided into three parts…” (Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres…) (Caesar, C. lulii Caesaris Com-mentarii rerum gestarum, book 1, chapter 1; trans. After he was elected consul, Marius promptly en-rolled in his army numbers of the urban proletariat, the capite censi, those without the necessary property qualification. Men like Lepidus or Catiline, thwarted in their attempts to gain power or to pass social legislation, raised armies against the state in 78 and 63 bce respectively. According to his contemporary, the famous orator Cicero, Caesar spoke and wrote on a daily basis. Caesar grew up during the bloody struggle between Sulla and Marius in the 80s bce. A. Goldhammer. Leaving his lieutenant Titus Labienus in winter quarters among the Sequani, Caesar returns to Nearer Gaul to conduct the administrative duties of a governor. Out of every eight praetors elected each year, only two could become consuls, and every year there were more ex-praetors competing for those top two positions. Although there have been a plethora of excellent TV and film adaptations of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, there have been few that deal with the historical Caesar, Occasionally Caesar has been the subject of the historical novel, most notably in the recent works of Colleen McCullough, Allen Massie, or Steven Saylor but none have achieved anything similar to the phenomenal success of the comic book series created by René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo. It was customary for Romans to celebrate the resgestae (“things done”) of their ancestors in speeches of praise at funerals and in funerary inscriptions. London: Orion, 2002. Beginning with 58 bce, each book narrates one year of campaigning. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Caesar’s fearless style of generalship, marked by his famed celeritas (speed) was as impressive as his oratory. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … When they join forces with Vercingetorix, he turns to the Germanic peoples for aid. Ingenious storylines paint a caricatured portrait of overbearing and stuffy Romans and of boorish and guileless Gauls. The former advocated an austere style of oratory. G. L. Hendrickson. Yet in the struggle for personal auctoritas, it became clear that an ambitious politician could use the people to his advantage. The books are further subdivided into chapters, or subsections. In 102 and 101 bce, under the command of Marius, the Romans defeated first the Teutones and then the Cimbri. A politician’s self-worth, or dignitas, was closely associated with the glory (gloria) and honor (honos) he attained from military accomplishments and political offices. Along with the tribes of Britain, Germany, and the Danube region, these nations were known collectively as the Celts. A. . The climax of the work is the siege of Alesia. To this was soon added Farther Gaul (Transalpine Gaul). In 108 bce Marius campaigned for the consulship of 107 bce. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war. More generally, Caesar’s descriptions of the Celtic tribes helped shape later Roman views of the “barbarian,” including those of historians, such as Tacitus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1957. Caesar’s work ends on the positive and self-congratulatory note: “When these messages were made known at Rome a public thanks-giving of twenty days was granted” (Gallic War, 7.90; trans. The leading rebel, Vercingetorix, submits nobly to Caesar. By the end of the year Gaul is at peace, and Caesar is rewarded an unprecedented honor—a 15-day period of thanksgiving to the immortal gods. Later on, in 68 bce Caesar was to win acclaim as the new champion of the populares when he proudly displayed images of Marius at his aunt’s funeral. The three allies engineered a consulship for Caesar in 59 bce, during which he oversaw the ratification of Pompey’s eastern settlement and supported the financial interests of Crassus in Egypt and the East. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. A cohort numbers about 360 men and there are ten cohorts to a legion; in the Gallic War a legion totaled about 3,600 men. This site contains Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin.. A note on the text. As appropriate, Caesar metes out pardon or punishment. "Commentaries on the Gallic War Galba shows initiative and the Romans counterattack from the gates of the camp: It was a complete reversal of fortune: the Gauls who had counted on capturing the camp were surrounded and cut off. Roman Political Life 90 BC-AD 69. Caesar agrees to spare the people but only if they lay down their weapons. A slightly different stance suggests that Caesar wrote the Commentaries in stages but published them all at the same time. In the subsequent sections Caesar and his legates reduce the remnants of Gallic resistance. Celtic chieftain Vercingetorix (c. 75 BC-c. 46 BC) battled valiantly to keep the Roman army from overrunning the territory of Gaul, as…, Iceni Queen Boudicca (died 61) ruled over a small tribe of Celts who challenged the colonization plans of the Roman Empire in England. It is said that they have a hundred cantons, each of which provides annually a thousand armed men for service in foreign wars. Uderzo, Albert. They also oversaw markets and weights and measures as well as public festivals and games. Once there, he sends his men against the Morin and Kenai, who have renewed hostilities. Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C. In the territory of the Eburones, Caesar sets up camp, appointing Cicero to guard the baggage.

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